On September 24, 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives launched impeachment proceedings against incumbent U.S. President Donald Trump after he scandalized a July 25 phone conversation with Ukrainian President Wolodymy Zelensky.  On August 12, 2019, an anonymous whistleblower filed a complaint against U.S. Inspector General Michael Atkinson, claiming that Trump had tried to pressure Zelensky to launch an investigation into former U.S. Vice President Joe Biden and his son Hunter.  Trump held a meeting with Zelensky on September 25 in New York, where the two presidents said zelensky had not been put under pressure during the July phone call and that nothing extraordinary had been done.  The Budapest Memorandum on Security Guarantees refers to three identical political agreements signed at the OSCE conference in Budapest, Hungary, on 5 December 1994, to provide its signatories with security guarantees regarding the accession of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The memorandum was originally signed by three nuclear powers: the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States. China and France gave slightly lower individual assurances in separate documents. In the event of a Dispute under Article VI, paragraph 2, it is expected that the parties to the dispute will first seek to resolve the dispute through consultation and negotiation, including non-binding third-party proceedings. If these consultations fail, paragraphs 2 and 3 specify the investor`s choice in dispute resolution. Paragraph 2 allows the investor to make an exclusive and irrevocable decision: 1. Apply one of the arbitration procedures described in the contract; (2) to present the litigation procedures previously agreed by the investor and the host country government for an investment agreement or otherwise; or (3) to refer the dispute to local courts or administrative tribunals in the host country. After Russia`s annexation of Crimea in 2014, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom with other countries stated that Russian involvement constituted a violation of its obligations to Ukraine under the Budapest Memorandum, which was sent to the United Nations under the signature of Sergei Lavrov and others and in violation of Ukraine`s sovereignty and territorial integrity. On 4 March 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin responded to a question about the violation of the Budapest Memorandum, calling the current Ukrainian situation a revolution: “A new state is emerging, but we have not signed mandatory documents with that state and in relation to that state.”  Russia stated that it had never been obliged to “force part of the Ukrainian civilian population to remain in Ukraine against its will”. Russia has hinted that the United States is violating the Budapest Memorandum and has called the Euromailis a COUP launched by the United States.  The Office of the United States Trade Representative and the Department of State conducted these negotiations with the support of the Department of Commerce and Finance and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. The United States has a friendly and strategic relationship with Ukraine and attaches great importance to the success of Ukraine`s transition to a prosperous market economy. [Citation required] In the autumn of 1999, following a period of economic decline marked by high inflation and a persistent dependence on government controls, the Ukrainian government began to take steps to revive economic reforms that have been stalled for years due to the absence of a majority of reforms in the Ukrainian parliament.
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